Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Disorders of Blood Sugar Metabolism
From our research, we break it all down on the blog write up.
Diabetes Mellitus (DM)
By Erika F. Brutsaert MD, New York Medical College
THIS IS JUST A TEMPLATE (Source : https://www.msdmanuals.com/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/diabetes-mellitus-dm-and-disorders-of-blood-sugar-metabolism/diabetes-mellitus-dm)
Urination and thirst are increased, and people may lose weight even if they are not trying to.
Diabetes damages the nerves and causes problems with sensation.
Diabetes damages blood vessels and increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, chronic kidney disease, and vision loss.
Doctors diagnose diabetes by measuring blood sugar levels.
People with diabetes need to follow a healthy diet that is low in refined carbohydrates (including sugar), saturated fat, and processed foods. They also need to exercise and usually take drugs to lower blood sugar levels.
Diabetes mellitus is a disorder in which the amount of sugar in the blood is elevated. Doctors often use the full name diabetes mellitus, rather than diabetes alone, to distinguish this disorder from diabetes insipidus. Diabetes insipidus is a relatively rare disorder that does not affect blood glucose levels but, just like diabetes mellitus, also causes increased urination.
(See also Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents.)
The three major nutrients that make up most food are carbohydrates, proteins, and fat. Sugars are one of three types of carbohydrates, along with starch and fiber.
There are many types of sugar. Some sugars are simple, and others are complex. Table sugar (sucrose) is made of two simpler sugars called glucose and fructose. Milk sugar (lactose) is made of glucose and a simple sugar called galactose. The carbohydrates in starches, such as bread, pasta, rice, and similar foods, are long chains of different simple sugar molecules. Sucrose, lactose, carbohydrates, and other complex sugars must be broken down into simple sugars by enzymes in the digestive tract before the body can absorb them.
Once the body absorbs simple sugars, it usually converts them all into glucose, which is an important source of fuel for the body. Glucose is the sugar that is transported through the bloodstream and taken up by cells. The body can also make glucose from fats and proteins. Blood “sugar” really means blood glucose.
Did You Know…
Insulin, a hormone released from the pancreas (an organ behind the stomach that also produces digestive enzymes), controls the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose in the bloodstream stimulates the pancreas to produce insulin. Insulin helps glucose to move from the blood into the cells. Once inside the cells, glucose is converted to energy, which is used immediately, or the glucose is stored as fat or the starch glycogen until it is needed.
The levels of glucose in the blood vary normally throughout the day. They rise after a meal and return to pre-meal levels within about 2 hours after eating. Once the levels of glucose in the blood return to pre-meal levels, insulin production decreases. The variation in blood glucose levels is usually within a narrow range, about 70 to 110 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 3.9 to 6.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) of blood in healthy people. If people eat a large amount of carbohydrates, the levels may increase more. People older than 65 years tend to have slightly higher levels, especially after eating.
If the body does not produce enough insulin to move the glucose into the cells, or if the cells stop responding normally to insulin (called insulin resistance), the resulting high levels of glucose in the blood and the inadequate amount of glucose in the cells together produce the symptoms and complications of diabetes.